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Table 1 Major characteristics of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells

From: Human tolerogenic DC-10: perspectives for clinical applications

Regulatory APCs Precursor Differentiation protocol Adherent cells Markers Co-stimulatory molecules Cytokines Tolerogenic molecules Mode of action References
DC-10 CD14+ GM-CSF, No CD1aneg High IL-10high HLA-Ghigh IL-10 [21]
   IL-4,      ILT4high   
   IL-10 for 7d   CD14   IL-12neg/low   HLA-G  
     CD16 CD83   IL-6   ILT4  
       TNFαlow    
M2 cells CD14+ M-CSF, Yes CD68 Low IL-10 Arginase Soluble factors [62, 63]
   IL-4 or IL-13        
   for 6d   CD163      
     MR      
  CD14+ M-CSF, Yes CD68 Low IL-10 TGF-β Arginase Soluble factors [62, 63]
   IL-10        
   for 6d   CD14 MR      
GM-CSF DC (macaque) CD14+ GM-CSF for 7d Yes CD68 High IL-10 HO-1 HO-1 [65, 66]
  BM    CD14neg   IL-12neg/low    
RAPA-DC CD14+ GM-CSF, No CD68 Low IL-12+   IL-12 [67, 68]
   IL-4,   CD14neg      
   RAPA for 7d     IL-10low    
       IL-6low    
D3/Dexa DC CD14+ GM-CSF, No CD1a Low IL-10 ILT4 Possibly via IL-12 [69, 70]
   IL-4,   CD14neg   IL-12low    
   for 9d        
   +Dexa (at d7)        
   +LPS and D3 (at d8)        
M reg CD14+ M-CSF Yes CD64+ HLA-DR+ IL-6low IDO IDO [71, 72]
     CD14neg/low      
   for 6d   CD16neg CD80–/low IL-10neg    
     CD163neg/low   TNF-αneg    
   + IFNγ (o.n.)    CD86+     
MDSC CD14+ GM-CSF, No CD1aneg/low Low IL-10 IDO PGE2 [26, 28]
   IL-4,     TGF-β    
   PGE2 for 6d   CD14+    Arginase,   
        COX2   
  1. APC, antigen-presenting cell; BM, Bone Marrow; COX2, cyclooxygenase-2; Dexa, dexamethasone; GM-CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; HO-1, heme oxygenase-1; IDO, indoleamine-2,3-dioxigenase; ILT, immunoglobulin-like transcript; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; M2 cell, human type 2 macrophage; M reg, regulatory macrophage; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MDSC, myeloid-derived suppressor cell; MR, mannose receptor; o.n., overnight; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; RAPA, rapamycin; TGF-β, transforming growth factor beta; D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.